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Author (up) Zhang, Y.; Liu, X.; Yuan, S.; Song, J.; Chen, W.; Dias, D. url  openurl
  Title A two-dimensional experimental study of active progressive failure of deeply buried Qanat tunnels in sandy ground Type Journal Article
  Year 2023 Publication Soils and Foundations Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 101323  
  Keywords Qanat tunnel, Sand, Failure effect, Soil arching, Model test  
  Abstract As an ancient underground hydraulic engineering facility, the Qanat system has been used to draw groundwater from arid regions. A qanat is a horizontal tunnel with a slight incline that draws groundwater from a higher location and delivers it to lower agricultural land. During long-term water delivery, the qanat tunnel has experienced different degrees of aging and collapse, which may result in the significant ground settlement and even disasters. This paper developed a two-dimensional laboratory system to investigate the influence of progressive failure on the stability of deeply buried qanat tunnels. The developed system is fully instrumented with a particle image velocimetry (PIV) system and earth pressure and displacement monitoring. A special cylindrical membrane tube is designed and connected to an advanced pressure–volume controller to simulate the step-wise failure process of the tunnel. Three model tests were conducted on a dry sand considering the buried qanat tunnels at three different depths. Experimental results clearly show the progressive evolution of soil arching effect in the dry sand associated with the progressive failure of the tunnels. The failure of the Qanat ground starts from the vault and develops upwards, which is closely related to the evolution of stress contour at three consecutive stages. Ground surface settlement and volume loss corresponding to three burial depths were compared. A deeply buried qanat tunnel has a small effect on surface settlement. Earth pressure evolution on the 2D plane shows the load redistribution when the qanat collapses. The maximum arch and the initial point of the limit state correspond to a volume loss of 12.5 % and 50 %, respectively. For the collapse of the deep buried qanat tunnel, ground earth pressure evolution can be divided into a stress-increasing region, stress-decreasing region, and no redistribution region. Furthermore, a multi trap-door model considering soil expansion is proposed to describe the progressive failure behavior and its effects.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0038-0806 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number THL @ christoph.kuells @ Zhang2023101323 Serial 274  
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