Indicators and a vision of socio-environmental health are identified and described as a management framework for socio-ecological systems. Health as an anthropocentric category of ecological state transports vital characteristics of socio-environmental systems. This 'Leitbild' is related to key properties such as sustainability, resilience, and minimal entropy of flows. The concept of socio-environmental health is described for the case of rural and urban societies of Rwanda and their respective environmental and resources management systems. The case of Rwanda is chosen as an example of a fast growing and developing society in a tropical climate depending vitally on social and environmental health for food and energy production.